Glossary of terms relating to bladder cancer - A-E
adjuvant - A drug or agent added to another drug or agent to enhance its medical effectiveness.
atrophy -When an organ diminishes in size.
bilateral - Term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body or two paired organs.
bladder instillation - Also known as a bladder wash or bath. The bladder is filled with a solution that is held for varying periods of time before being drained through a catheter.
bladder irrigation- A continuous flow of fluid through the bladder with the use of a catheter.
bladder neck - Area of thickened muscle fiber where the bladder joins the urethra. Acting on signals from the brain, bladder neck muscles can either tighten to hold urine in the bladder or relax to allow urine out and into the urethra.
bladder neck contracture - Scarring of tissue at the bladder neck as a complication of surgery. May lead to urinary problems that require further surgery to correct.
bladder prolapse - When the bladder slips out of its correct position.
blood urea nitrogen - Also known as BUN. A waste product in the blood that comes from the breakdown of food protein. The kidneys filter blood to remove urea. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level increases.
carcinoma in situ - Also known as CIS. The stage of high-grade cancer that appears as a flat, reddish, velvety patch on the bladder lining.
CIC - Also known as clean intermittent catheterization. Periodic insertion of a clean catheter into the urethra after washing your hands to drain the urine from the bladder.
condom catheter - A device or cone-shaped condom catheter that is placed over the penis to allow for urine drainage in men who have urinary incontinence. These devices are attached to the shaft of the penis by some form of adhesive and are connected to urine collecting bags by a tube.
cystectomy - Surgical removal of the bladder.
cystitis - Also known as bladder infection. Urinary tract infection (UTI)involving the bladder, which causes inflammation of the bladder and results in pain and a burning feeling in the pelvis or urethra.
cystogram -An X-ray examination of the bladder utilizing contrast material injected into the bladder.
cytology - The examination of cells obtained from the body tissue or fluids (ie: urine), especially to establish if they are cancerous.
distal urethra: Location of urethral opening between the middle or the penile shaft and the head of the penis (glans) in men; in women, the part of the urethral opening further from the bladder, closer to the opening in the vagina
distal ureter- Location of the ureter closest to the bladder opening. Ureters are the long, thin tubes that connect the kidney (renal pelvis) to the bladder; proximal ureter-Location of the ureter closest to where it connects to the kidney (renal pelvis)
detrusor muscle - Contracting muscle in the bladder that helps to expel urine.
dysuria -Painful or difficult urination, most frequently caused by infection or inflammation but it can also be caused by certain drugs.
ectopic ureter -A ureter which fails to connect properly to the bladder and drains somewhere outside the bladder.