epididymis - A coiled tube attached to the back and upper side of the testicle that stores sperm and is connected to the vas deferens
epididymitis - An inflammation of the epididymis.
epithelium - The outside layer of cells lining
extravasation -Process of passing urine.
foley catheter - A flexible plastic tube with a small balloon on one end. Inserted through the urethra up into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage.
fulguration - The destruction of tissue by means of high-voltage electric sparks.
hydronephrosis - Swelling of the top of the ureter, usually because something is blocking the urine from flowing into or out of the bladder; a condition that occurs as a result of urine accumulation in the upper urinary tract.
hypercontinence - a condition where complete excretion of urine is difficult, sometimes necessitating CIC (clean intermittent catheterization, see above)
ileal conduit - Made by using a small segment of the small intestine and creating an artificial opening on the surface of the skin for urine to pass outside the body into a collecting pouch attached to the skin.
inferior vena cava - A large vein that receives blood from the lower extremities, pelvis and abdomen and empties it into the right atrium of the heart.
inguinal -Located in or affecting the groin.
intravesical -Inside the bladder.
intravesical chemotherapy - Chemotherapy administered within the bladder.
intravesical immunotherapy - Treatment of disease by administering antibodies inside the bladder.
kegel exercises - Tightening and relaxing the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position, performed in order to improve the ability to hold in urine and to help people regain continence after bladder removal and/or replacement surgery (radical cystectomy).
lamina propria - In the bladder, a layer of loose connective tissue between the urothelium and bladder muscle (separated by a membrane from the urothelium).
lymph nodes - Small rounded masses of tissue distributed along the lymphatic system most prominently in the armpit, neck and groin areas. Lymph nodes produce special cells that help fight off foreign agents invading the body. Lymph nodes also act as traps for infectious agents.
lymphadenopathy - Any disease, disorder or enlargement of the lymph nodes.
nephrectomy - Surgical removal of a kidney.
orthotopic - 'In the normal or usual position'. An orthotopic neobladder is a reconstruction surgery that allows normal urination through the urethra after bladder removal and replacement, also called a neobladder
ostomy- A surgical procedure such as a colostomy or ileostomy, in which an artificial opening called a stoma is created for excreting waste into an external bag (appliance). See also, ileal conduit
palpated -Examined medically by touching.
papillary tumor -Tumor with nipple-like, stalk-like or finger-like appearance. Can be low grade or high grade, indicating aggressiveness. Most common type of bladder tumor, usually low grade.
penile clamp - A device used by men to put direct pressure on the penis to compress the urethra preventing urine leakage. When the device is removed (unclamped) the bladder is allowed to drain.
penile prostheses -Semirigid or inflatable devices that are implanted into penises to alleviate impotence.
perineal: Related to the area between the anus and the scrotum in males and the area between the anus and the vagina in females, called the perineum
peritoneum - Strong, smooth, colorless membrane that lines the walls of the abdomen and covers numerous body organs including the bladder.
perivesical - 'Around the bladder', usually referring to the fat that surrounds the bladder. If a tumor penetrates the perivesical fat that would mean it has escaped the bladder
prostate -In men, a walnut-shaped gland that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The prostate supplies fluid that goes into semen.
prostatectomy -Surgical procedure for the partial or complete removal of the prostate.
pyeloplasty -Surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis to correct a blockage.
renal (kidney) pelvis - The basin into which the urine formed by the kidneys is excreted before it travels to the ureters and bladder.
The ureters and renal pelvis are vulnerable to spread from TCC (transitional cell carcinoma or bladder cancer). Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a different kind of cancer that begins in the kidney itself and is not treated the same as TCC that has spread into the upper urinary tract.
renal cell carcinoma -RCC, a type of kidney cancer, more common that TCC or transitional cell carcinoma, which usually arises in the bladder and rarely into the ureter and/or kidney (renal pelvis)
renal vein -Short, thick vein which returns blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
resection -The surgical removal of a portion of a body part.
resectoscope - A tube-shaped instrument used by the urologist to scoop a tumor from the bladder lining.
retroperitoneal lymph nodes - Lymph nodes at the back of the abdominal and pelvis cavity.
self-catheterization - Inserting a thin, flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra to allow drainage of urine. This is sometimes necessary after bladder removal and replacement in case of hypercontinence
sepsis -Presence in blood or other body tissues of harmful bacteria spreading from a focal point of infection
stent - a tube inserted through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter. Stents are used to aid treatment in various ways, such as helping drugs to enter the ureters or to help open ureters that may be blocked due to scarring or tumor
stoma - An opening on the abdomen which drains urine into an external bag after the creation of an ileal conduit
transitional cell carcinoma - A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.
transurethral resection -Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra.
trigone- The most sensitive area on the inside (wall) of the bladder, where bladder nerves are most highly concentrated.
unilateral -Affecting only one side.
uremia -The illness associated with the buildup of urea in the blood because the kidneys are not working effectively. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness and mental confusion.